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美国汽车玻璃修复标准

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2014-09-04  浏览次数:18091
    汽车玻璃修补标准(ROLAGS 汽车夹层玻璃修补标准是汽车玻璃修补协会和美国玻璃协会(是美国标准协会ANSI认可的标准开发者)合做制定的。制定该标准的目的是:1、当汽车夹层玻璃破损时,帮助车主来确认是更换还是修补该汽车玻璃;2、帮助大家来认识玻璃修补所能达到的效果;3、鼓励汽车玻璃修补技师遵从汽车玻璃修补的最好方法;4、以便形成大家公认的汽车玻璃修补的最好方法。 _____________________________________________________ 1.0    Introduction  (介绍) 1.1  Windshield Repair is a permanent process that can be used to repair laminated auto glass that has been damaged.  对破损的汽车玻璃来说,汽车夹层玻璃修补的效果是永久性的。 1.2  There are two basic causes for damaged laminated auto glass.   汽车玻璃破损基本上有以下两个原因: 1.2.1        Impact: This is the most common and occurs when an object strikes the windshield. 碰撞:一个物体撞击到汽车挡风玻璃上从而产生破裂,这是最常见的一种情况; 1.2.2        Stress or Twist: A crack occurs when a windshield is twisted, either by flexing within the vehicle frame or because of improper mounting.    内压力与扭弯:不合适的安装方法和汽车的车框外形不规则,都会使汽车玻璃产生扭弯变形,导致汽车玻璃自裂。 1.3  The introduction of chemicals and equipment in 1972 that were specifically designed to repair damage on laminated windshields has led to the subsequent development of sophisticated tools and superior resins. This in turn has enabled windshield repair to achieve the following, if performed by a trained professional.   1972年美国首先研制出了专门用于汽车挡风玻璃修补的化学制剂和仪器,从此用于汽车玻璃修补的设备和树脂得于迅速发展。如果您得到专家的培训,可以达到以下的效果。 1.3.1        Improve the optical clarity by reducing the visible damage         提高透光率以恢复其视觉效果; 1.3.2        Re-create a smooth surface to prevent interference with the wipers         使破损的玻璃表面恢复平滑,防止雨刷器和擦拭者被划伤; 1.3.3        Prevent the original damage from spreading further         防止玻璃裂缝继续向外扩张; 1.3.4        Add strength to the damaged area         增加玻璃破损处的强度; 1.3.5        Retain the original seal by saving the windshield          保持原装玻璃的密封性并节省了安装新挡风玻璃的费用; 2.0         Purpose  (目的) 2.1          It is the intention of the Repair of Laminated Automotive Glass Standards Committee (ROLAGS) that this document:  汽车玻璃修补标准委员会起草该文件的目的如下: 2.1.1        Be used to consistently evaluate damages on laminated auto glass in order to aid in the decision to repair or replace the glass      当汽车玻璃破损时为车主提供是修补还是更换的依据; 2.1.2        Assist the public in understanding what is achieved through windshield repair 2.1.3        Encourage technicians to strive for the highest quality repair by following industry recommended procedures 2.1.4        Codify the current best practices of laminated auto glass repair  3.0         Scope (范围) 3.1          The Scope of this document shall be to define: (该文件将要定义的范围) 3.1.1        Repairable damages (可以修补的情况) 3.1.2        The process of windshield repair  (汽车玻璃修补的步骤) 3.1.3        The performance criteria for repaired glass (汽车玻璃修补操作的标准) 3.2          This document also provides best practices for the training of a repair technician.    (这个文件提供了培训汽车玻璃修补技师的最好方法) 4.0         Glossary of Repair Terminology  (汽车玻璃修补术语) 4.1           Bullseye:  Damage that is marked by a separated cone in the outer layer of glass that results in a dark circle with an impact point   (牛眼状:破损状的特点是在汽车玻璃的外层玻璃上以撞击点为中心向外产生的一个圆锥体的破损,在最外面是一个明亮的圆环)如下:                   4.2           Chip:  Damage to the surface of the glass not associated with other types of  damage  (破碎状:该种破损在玻璃的表面,没有和其它类型的破损相联合) 4.3           Combination break:  Damage with multiple characteristics, i.e. star within a bullseye (综合状破损:该种破损有多重特性,是牛眼状与星形状的复合体)                     COMBINATION  4.4           Crack:  Single line of separation such as:  (裂缝:单条裂缝如下) 4.4.1          Short crack: A crack of 6 inches (150 mm) or less (短裂缝:长度不超过15cm的裂缝) 4.4.2          Long crack: A crack of more than 6 inches (150 mm) (长度超过15cm的裂缝); 4.4.3          Edge crack: Any crack that that extends to an edge  (边缘裂缝:任何一条有一端延伸至玻璃边缘的裂缝) 4.4.4          Floating crack: Any crack that does not extend to an edge (移动裂缝:裂缝的任何一端都没有延伸至玻璃边缘) 4.4.5          Stress crack: Any crack that extends from an edge and lacks an impact point  (应力裂纹:任何一条从玻璃边缘起始的裂缝,并且该裂缝没有撞击点) 4.5           Damage:  A break in laminated glass  (破损:在夹层玻璃上的一个破裂) 4.6           Ding:  Non-technical term used to refer to a damage on laminated glass (用于表述夹层玻璃破损的非技术性的术语) 4.7           Halfmoon: Partial bullseye  (半月形:牛眼状破损的一部分)    4.8           Impact Point:  Actual location on the glass that was struck by an object (usually a stone) and resulting in damage    (撞击点:玻璃上被物体[大多是石子]碰撞的实际位置或导致破损的位置) 4.9           Laminated glass: Two or more layers of glass with a non-glass inner layer(s) (夹层玻璃:两层或多层玻璃由PVB胶片粘接而成的安全玻璃)   4.10       Legs: Short cracks that emanate from the break   (裂纹:由撞击点向外延伸的小裂缝) 4.11       Pit:  Impact point from which a small piece of glass is missing (凹坑:缺失玻璃的撞击点) 4.12       Repair:  A process that removes air from a break in laminated glass and fills the break with a curable, optically matched resin   (修复:从玻璃破损处把空气抽走,并注入高粘接强度和透光率好的树脂的过程) 4.13       Star Break:  Damage that exhibits a series of short cracks or legs that emanate from the impact point  (星形状破损:由撞击点和由此向外产生的数条短裂缝或裂纹组成)
    STAR BREAK  4.14       Stone Break:  Non-technical term often used to refer to damage on laminated glass. (石头破损:  4.15       Surface Pit:  Damage to the surface of laminated glass that is not associated with other types of damage  (表面凹坑:夹层玻璃表面的破损,没有和其它类型的破损相关联) 5.0         Glossary:  Other related terminology.  (相关术语) 5.1           Driver’s Primary Viewing Area (DPVA):  An area on the exterior of the windshield: (司机主视区:前挡风玻璃外部的一个区域: 5.1.1          12 inches wide (300 mm wide),  30cm 宽) 5.1.2          Centered on the driver’s position, (以司面正前方位置为中心) 5.1.3          Extends from the top to the bottom of the wiper sweep.  (1in.=25 mm)                  (雨刷器所能清洁到的从上到下的部分)                                      5.2           Cosmetic blemish:  A non-structural defect within the completed repair that does not impair the driver’s vision     在汽车玻璃修补过程中的,一个非结性的失误,不会影响司机的视线。 5.3           Refraction:  The bending of light rays while passing from one medium to another       (折射: 5.4           Resin:  An organic material optically matched to the glass that when cured will fill the break or crack in the laminated glass  (树脂:一种化学材料,透明度与玻璃一样,可以填充到夹层玻璃的破损部分和裂缝中,从而达到对玻璃的修复) 5.5           Wiper Sweep:  An area on the windshield cleaned by a motorized arm with a flexible blade attached   (雨刷器清洁区:汽车挡风玻璃上可以被雨刷器清洁到的区域) 5.6           Value added features:  Items added to the windshield by the manufacturer such as rain sensors, heads-up displays (HUD), Night Vision, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) antennas, etc.  (汽车玻璃附件:汽车玻璃制造商安装到挡风玻璃上的物体,例如:雨刷传器器,智能显示器,微光摄象电视,全球定位系统,天线等) 6.0         Damage Types and Repairable Dimensions  (玻璃破损类型及可修补的尺寸) 6.1           Bullseye: With a diameter no larger than one inch (25 mm)    (牛眼状:直径不超过2.5cm 6.2           Combination break:  With neither break having a measurement greater than 3 3/8 inches x 2 1/8 inches (84 mm x 53 mm)    综合状:不超过8.4cm x5.3cm的破损区域(名片大小); 6.3          Crack:  No longer than 18 inches (450 mm)  裂缝:长度不超过45cm 6.4           Half moon (Partial Bullseye): with a diameter no larger than one inch (25 mm)       半月形(牛眼状的一部分):直径不超过2.5cm 6.5           Star break: with a damage no larger than 3 3/8 inches x 2 1/8 inches (84 mm x 53 mm)   星形状破损:破损区域不超过8.4cm x5.3cm(约名片大小)    Note:   3 3/8 X 2 1/8 inches (84 mm x 53 mm) is approximately the size of a credit card. (See 6.2 and 6.5 above)    Note:  One inch (25 mm) is approximately the size of USA 25 cent coin  提示:8.4cm x5.3cm 基本上相当于名片的大小;1英寸=2.54厘米; 7.0         Repair Limitations  (修补的限制) Both the location and the condition of the damage are important considerations in the decision to repair.  Replacement is recommended under any of the following circumstances, i.e. do not repair:  在决定对汽车玻璃进行修补之前,玻璃破损的位置和情形都是应该考虑的。如果出现以下情况,我们推荐车主去更换汽车玻璃而不选择来修补。 7.1          Damage that penetrates both the inside and outside layer of a laminated glass      汽车挡风玻璃两层都已破碎; 7.2          Damage with three or more long cracks emanating from a single impact point       由一个创击点而引出三条以上的长裂缝; 7.3          Damage on the inside layer of laminated glass       破损出现在里层玻璃上; 7.4          Damage that is contaminated with visible impurities that cannot be removed through cleaning ;由于玻璃破损时间过长,在破损中有明显的污物而无法去除时; 7.5          Damage in an area of the windshield where value-added features (see section 5.6) may be negatively affected by the damage and/or the repair process 破损或修补过程会影响到玻璃附件(见5.6节)的功能时; 7.5.1        Repair technicians should consult and follow any vehicle manufacturer’s recommendations before performing a repair on any value-added feature. 汽车玻璃修补技师在修补带有附件的汽车玻璃时,可参考和查阅该汽车厂家编制的说明书; 7.6          Damage with a pit size greater than 3/8 inch (9 mm)   玻璃缺失部分的直径超过1cm; 7.7          Edge crack(s) that intersect more than one edge 如果裂缝的两端都在玻璃的边缘; 7.8          Stress cracks 引力裂纹; 7.9          In the Driver’s Primary Viewing Area (DPVA) if: (如果司机主视区出现以下情况: 7.9.1        Any damage being considered for repair has a diameter larger than one inch (25 mm)     任何一个直径超过2.5cm的破损; 7.9.2        The finished pit will be greater than 3/16 inch (5 mm)     玻璃缺失部分(凹坑)尺寸大于0.5厘米; 7.9.3        The repair will be within 4 inches (100 mm) of another repair 两个破损处的距离小于10cm 7.10      If in the technician’s judgment any repair will impair the safety of the driver and or the occupant of the vehicle. 如果修补技师认为修补完成之后会降低车主或司机的安全性;                   8.0         Procedures to be followed by the repair technician.  汽车玻璃修补操作程序 8.1          Auto glass repair is a process that removes the air from the break and fills the break with a curable, optically matched resin.  汽车玻璃修补是一个注入透明度与玻璃相似的树脂并从破损处抽出空气的过程; 8.2          In order to insure the best possible repair, the technician should do the following:  为了达到最好的修补效果,修补技师应按以下步骤操作: 8.2.1        Inspect the damage from both the inside and outside to determine if the damage is repairable (See Sections 6.0 & 7.0).  如果该破损是可修补的(参考6.07.0节),要从里外两侧观察玻璃的破损情况。 8.2.2        Check for moisture and/or contamination.   检查破损中是否存在水汽,如果有水汽存在,要进行烘干; 8.2.3        Remove dirt, foreign matter and loose glass from the damaged area. 清除破损处的污垢,杂质和玻璃碎屑; 8.2.4        In cases of temperature extremes, cool or warm the glass accordingly.        假设温度极限,从而判断玻璃是冷还是热; 8.2.5        Access the damage through probing or drilling.        用划线器或探针清理破损处; 8.2.6        Protect the resin from premature curing.        防止树脂提高固化; 8.2.7        Remove the air and inject repair resin.        注入树脂,抽出破损中的空气; 8.2.8        Properly cure the resin.        完全固化填缝树脂; 8.2.9        Fill the pit with resin.        滴入填坑树脂; 8.2.10    Properly cure the resin. 完全固化填坑树脂; 8.2.11    Finish the repair to be flush with the glass.  完成修补过程并清洁玻璃; 8.2.12    Inspect the finished repair (see 9.0).    检查修补的效果; 9.0         Quality Inspection of the Finished Repair by the Technician  修补完成之后的质量检查 9.1    The repair shall be inspected from the driver’s position within the vehicle.     在车内驾驶员的位置进行进行检查; 9.2    The repair should be free of significant light scatter, dirt, road contaminants, air pockets, and other optical defects that may distract the driver or impair his vision. 修理完成之后,修补处不应该有散光,污垢,灰尘,气泡和其它的亮斑,从而转移司机的注意力或影响他们的视线; 9.3    The finished pit should not be larger than 3/8 inch (9 mm) and is limited to 3/16 inch (5 mm) in the Driver’s Primary Viewing Area (DPVA).    修补完成之后的凹坑直径不应大于9mm,在司机主视区直径不应大于5mm 9.4    The repair should not interfere with the operation of the windshield wipers.    修补完成之后,不能影响雨刷器的正常工作; 10.0    Training of a Repair Technician  (对汽车玻璃修复技师的培训) 10.1      The technician shall be trained to this Standard.       首先需对技术进行该标准的培训; 10.2      Said training program shall include:  培训的步骤应该包括以下: 10.2.1    Both active (hands-on) and passive coursework ;        培训者对受训者进行演示,受训者按要求进行实际操作; 10.2.2    Passage of both a written and practical exam       要通过笔试和实践操作考试; 10.2.3    Adequate maintenance of records on all participants and their final exam scores  要对所有受训者的笔试成绩和实际操作成绩加以记录; 11.0    Performance Requirements for Windshield Repair  完成汽车玻璃修补的必要条件; Windshield repair is a permanent process that removes air from the break and fills it with a curable, optically matched resin. To accomplish this, it is recommended that a windshield repair system include the following:  汽车挡风玻璃修补是把符合视觉和强度要求的树脂注入玻璃的破碎处,把其中的空气排出,最终让破损永久恢复的过程。 11.1      Procedures to: 程序如下: 11.1.1    Inspect the damage and apply repair criteria    检查破损的状况,确定修补方案; 11.1.2    Check for moisture and/or contamination         检查是否有水汽或污物存在; 11.1.3    Ensure that the break is filled         确保破碎处已注满树脂; 11.2      Equipment to: 操作: 11.2.1    Remove moisture/contamination 将破损中的水汽烘干,清除其中的污物; 11.2.2    Access damage 11.2.3    Remove air and inject the repair resin 11.2.4    Properly cure the resin 11.2.5    Fill the pit  11.3      Resins that will: 11.3.1    Meet the requirements such as viscosity, cure rate, and ability to be polished which are specific to the windshield repair system’s equipment                      11.3.2    In its cured state, match the refractive index, color and clarity of the laminated glass that is being repaired 11.3.3    In a long crack repair remain free of light refraction and seal the laminate for the life of the long crack repair warranty   终生保证长裂缝的光折射率和粘接强度不会发生变化; 11.4      Suppliers of laminated automotive glass repair systems shall be required to pass the following tests:   汽车夹层挡风玻璃的修补结果应该通过以下检测试验: Test pieces of categories (11.5.1) and (11.5.2) will be subjected to ANSI 以下试验条款中的11.5.111.5.2符合美国国家标准组织(ANSI)要求; Z 26.1-1996 tests prescribed for laminated glass used in windshields: Z16.1-1996检测方法适用于汽车夹层挡风玻璃修补试验的要求; 11.4.1    Test 1, Light stability test  光稳定性试验; 11.4.2    Test 2, Luminous transmittance test   光透射比试验; 11.4.3    Test 3, Humidity test   潮湿试验; 11.4.4    Test 4, Boil test  煮沸试验; 11.4.5    Test 9, Impact dart test, 9.14 m (30 ft)   标枪冲击试验 9.14m 11.4.6    Test 12, Impact, ball, 9.14 m (30 ft)  钢球冲击试验 9.14m 11.4.7    Test 26, Penetration resistance  抗穿透试验; 11.5      Test pieces: AS-1 laminated glass of 6 mm nominal thickness prepared as follows:  试验样片:6mm厚夹层玻璃; 11.5.1    12 inch x 12 inch (300 mm x 300 mm) with a repaired combination break of 0.6-1.0 inch (15-25 mm) diameter at the geometric center  (x 宽:300 mm x 300 mm ,中心有直径15mm—25mm的破损修复; 11.5.2    12 inch x 12 inch (300 mm x 300 mm) with two opposite edges arrised and polished, with a repaired crack bisecting the finished edges, (i.e.12 inches [300 mm] long) (x 宽:300 mm x 300 mm,裂缝长度不会超过300mm)
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